Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is critical in managing acute and chronic complications of sickle cell disease. Alloimmunization and iron overload remain significant complications of transfusion therapy and are minimized with prophylactic Rh and K antigen RBC matching and iron chelation. Matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a curative therapeutic option. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based gene therapy has recently shown great promise, for which obtaining sufficient HSCs is essential for success. This article discusses RBC transfusion indications and complications, transfusion support during HSCT, and HSC mobilization and collection for autologous HSCT with gene therapy.
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