To capture evidence of the efficacy and safety of pharmacological analgesia for uncomplicated acute sickle-cell pain in pediatric patients compared to placebo.
SOURCES OF DATA:
Searches for key evidence were performed from March 1 to 31, 2018, for randomized controlled trials of pharmacological analgesia compared to placebo for uncomplicated acute sickle-cell pain in a pediatric sample. The authors searched ten scientific databases including, among others, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov for this systematic review and meta-analysis.
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS:
Four trials (n = 227) were selected by the inclusion criteria (intranasal fentanyl, intravenous magnesium, arginine, and inhaled nitric oxide). The quality of evidence ranged from low to moderate for each outcome. Meta-analysis of changes in the ladder of pain score (p = 0.72), length-of-stay in hospital (p = 0.65), and amount of narcotics used during the study (p = 0.10) showed non-statistically significant differences and a lack of amelioration provided by pharmaceutical analgesics in treatment group. The adverse events reported that more participants in the intervention arm underwent pain, with statistically significant differences at the drug delivery site in studies using intranasal fentanyl and intravenous magnesium (p = 0.03).
Pharmacological analgesia appears to be uncertain in improving the intensity and providing relief of acute pain crisis in pediatric patients with sickle-cell anemia. With respect to clinical advantage, no decisive deduction about the clinical efficacy may be made regarding these medications in acute sickle-cell pain management in the pediatric age group.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.